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Environmental-friendly agriculture

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Volume 68 / No. 3 / 2022

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EFFECT OF CONTROLLED-RELEASE FERTILIZER ON MAIZE YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE UNDER A FERTILIZER ONE-TIME POINT-APPLIED SYSTEM

一次性机械化穴施缓释复合肥对玉米产量和养分吸收的影响

DOI :

Authors

(*) Xin DU

China Agriculture University

Cailing LIU

China Agriculture University

Meng JIANG

China Agriculture University

Hao YUAN

China Agriculture University

(*) Corresponding authors:

Abstract

Currently, maize production in China suffers from many problems such as excessive fertilizer application, inefficient fertilizer use and insufficient agricultural labor. To explore the efficient fertilization pattern of maize for fertilizer decrease and yield increase by studying the effect of one-time mechanical point-applied fertilization of controlled-release compound fertilizer in the root-zone on yield and nutrient uptake. The selected fertilizer was a controlled-release granular fertilizer(24-6-10 for N-P2O5-K2O)with six treatments in the application program: 1) no fertilizer (CK); 2) a one-time banding fertilizer application (BDP) 5 cm off the seeds between rows and 10 cm deep; 3) one-time point-applied fertilization (RZF) 5 cm off seed in the row and 10 cm deep; 4) one-time point-applied fertilization (90% RZF) 10% fertilizer reduction 5 cm off seed in the row and 10 cm deep; 5) one-time point-applied fertilization (80% RZF) 20% fertilizer reduction 5 cm off seed in the row and 10 cm deep; 6) one-time point-applied fertilization (70% RZF) 30% fertilizer reduction 5 cm off seed in the row and 10 cm deep. The results showed that one-time mechanized point-applied fertilization of controlled-release compound fertilizer (RZF) in the root zone increased yield by 5.84% over one-time banding fertilizer application (BDP), and the difference was significant, indicating that mechanized point-applied fertilization of fertilizer can replace manual point-applied fertilization application operations and achieve increased crop yield. Fertilizer agronomic utilization rate of 12.35% and bias productivity of 5.31% were higher in RZF than in BDP, and the differences were significant, indicating that one-time mechanical point-applied fertilization in the root zone significantly improved fertilizer utilization and reduced fertilizer loss.

Abstract in Chinese

针对夏玉米现有施肥模式下施肥量大、肥效低导致面源污染大、单产低的问题,通过研究根区一次性机械化穴施缓释复合肥对夏玉米产量和养分吸收的影响,探索减肥增产的玉米高效施肥模式。选用肥料为缓释颗粒肥(N-P2O5-K2O为24-6-10),施肥方案共设6个处理,分别为:1)不施肥(CK);2) 行间偏离种子5 cm、深10 cm一次性条施(BDP);3) 行间偏离种子5 cm、深10 cm一次性穴施(RZF);4) 减肥10%行间偏离种子5 cm、深10 cm一次性穴施(90%RZF);5) 减肥20%行间偏离种子5 cm、深10 cm一次性穴施(80%RZF);6) 减肥30%行间偏离种子5 cm、深10 cm一次性穴施(70%RZF)。结果显示,根区一次性机械化穴施缓释复合肥(RZF)比一次性条施(BDP)增产5.84%,且差异显著,说明机械化穴施肥料可以代替人工穴施肥作业,实现作物增产。RZF的肥料农学利用率12.35%、偏生产力5.31%均比BDP高,且差异显著,说明根区一次性机械化穴施肥料显著提高了肥料利用率,减少了肥效损失和面源污染。RZF与BDP相比,植株高度无显著差异,但植株茎粗、叶面积、伤流量和根系干物质量差异显著,说明根区施肥可促进根系生长,增大根长和根表面积,从而导致吸收水肥的能力更强,进一步表现为伤流量显著增大,从而提高地上部生长发育,增大叶面积,提高光合作用强度和碳水化合物的积累,实现籽粒增产。

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